Exploration and mapping of the moon using spacecraft and space vehicles

Rodionova Zh.F.1, Shevchenko V.V.1, Grishakina E.A.2, Slyuta E.N.2
1 - Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University (SAI MSU)
2 - Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry RAS (GEOKHI RAS)

Abstract. Our knowledge of lunar topography has significantly improved over the last two decades owing to laser altimetry and images from orbiting spacecraft. Lunar terrain is detailed in the Survey Map of the Moon, which has a scale of 1:13 000 000. The map is based on the digital terrain model built using the data from the laser altimeter installed on the US spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) with the resolution of 64 pixels per degree (0.5 km per pixel). In addition to the terrain relief shaded using the wash-drawing technique, the map provides Latin names of major lunar terrain features adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), and their names in Russian. There are symbols on the map, which indicate the landing sites of all the spacecraft and manned space vehicles. The paper describes the major results of lunar surface studies conducted on the basis of data from orbital spacecraft and lunar landers.

29-44.pdf (in Russian)


Renato Dicati¹, Zhanna Rodionova²
1-USFI (Unione Stampa Filatelica Italiana) Milan, Italy, e-mail: renato.dicati@gmail.com
2-Sternberg State Astronomical Institute 119992 Universitetskiy pr.13 e-mail: marss8@mail.ru

Abstract. Although the spatial philately was born after the launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, the first its stamps is included in a set dedicated to Soviet Union scientists, issued in August 15, 1951, that depicts Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the father of astronautics and the first image of a cosmic rocket. A few days after the launch of Sputnik, on October 7, 1957, two stamps were issued: the first belonging to the set dedicated to the International Geophysical Year, contains the text ‘research with rockets’ and an image in which a rocket is drawn on the background of a starry sky. The second stamp, dedicated to the birth’s centenary of Tsiolkovsky, shows the portrait of the scientist and, in the background, a rocket and the planet Saturn. On this stamp November 28, 1957, a black overprint was imprinted with the words “4 October 1957 the first Earth’s artificial satellite”. This was the first real astrophilatelitic issue. There are tables with the names of lunar spacecrafts and images of stamps devoted them in the poster.

Dicati _Rodionova_Abstract _9MS3.pdf

Mapping of potential lunar landing areas using LRO and SELENE data

A.A. Kokhanova,*, I.P. Karachevtsevaa, A.E. Zubareva, V. Patratya, Zh.F. Rodionovab, J. Oberstc,d
a MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (MExLab), Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK), Moscow, Russia
b Sternberg State Astronomical Institute Lomonosov Moscow University, Moscow, Russia
c Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
d German Aerospace Center (DLR), Berlin, Germany
Planetary and Space Science 162 (2018) 179-189

Abstract. We apply cartographic methods on remote sensing data obtained by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Kaguya (SELENE) to characterize potential landing sites for the “Luna-25” mission, previously selected. To identify presumable hazards (steep slopes, high ruggedness, cratered terrain) we developed special algorithms and GIS-tools. Sets of hazard maps for 3 high-priority potential landing sites were created.


Mapping of inner and outer celestial bodies using new global and local topographic data derived from photogrammetric image processing

I.P. Karachevtsevaa, A.A. Kokhanova, J.F. Rodionovaa,b, A.Yu. Zharkovaa,, M.S. Lazarevaa
a-Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK), MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial laboratory (MExLab),
105064. Gorokhovsky per., Moscow, Russia, i_karachevtseva@miigaik.ru
b-Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, 1198993, Moscow, Russia
Commission IV, WG IV/8

Abstract. New estimation of fundamental geodetic parameters and global and local topography of planets and satellites provide basic coordinate systems for mapping as well as opportunities for studies of processes on their surfaces. The main targets of our study are Europa, Ganymede, Calisto and Io (satellites of Jupiter), Enceladus (a satellite of Saturn), terrestrial planetary bodies, including Mercury, the Moon and Phobos, one of the Martian satellites. In particular, based on new global shape models derived from three-dimensional control point networks and processing of high-resolution stereo images, we have carried out studies of topography and morphology. As a visual representation of the results, various planetary maps with different scale and thematic direction were created. For example, for Phobos we have produced a new atlas with 43 maps, as well as various wall maps (different from the maps in the atlas by their format and design): basemap, topography and geomorphological maps. In addition, we compiled geomorphologic maps of Ganymede on local level, and a global hypsometric Enceladus map. Mercury’s topography was represented as a hypsometric globe for the first time. Mapping of the Moon was carried out using new images with super resolution (0.5-1 m/pixel) for activity regions of the first Soviet planetary rovers (Lunokhod-1 and -2). New results of planetary mapping have been demonstrated to the scientific community at planetary map exhibitions (Planetary Maps Exhibitions, 2015), organized by MExLab team in frame of the International Map Year, which is celebrated in 2015-2016. Cartographic products have multipurpose applications: for example, the Mercury globe is popular for teaching and public outreach, the maps like those for the Moon and Phobos provide cartographic support for Solar system exploration.


Atlas Planetary Mapping: Phobos Case

I.P. Karachevtseva¹, A. A. Kokhanov¹ and Zh. Rodionova²
1-Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography
2-Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow University
In the book Planetary Cartography and GIS. ed. Henrik Hargitai,Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019, pp 235-251

Abstract. We present a general procedure of the Phobos Atlas creation. Main principles of mapping, mathematical, and geographical basics are described and justified. Data sources for mapping are listed. Approaches in the development of legends and design are considered, and some examples of the maps are shown.

Springer Phobos.pdf

Cartography of the Soviet Lunokhods’Routes on the Moon

P. Karachevtseva¹, A. A. Kokhanov¹, N. A. Kozlova¹ and Zh. F. Rodionova²
1-Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography
2-Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow University
In the book Planetary Cartography and GIS. ed. Henrik Hargitai,Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019, pp 263-278

Abstract. Soviet missions Luna-17 (1971) and Luna-21 (1973) deployed the roving robotic vehicles Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2 on the lunar surface. The Lunokhods (Moonwalkers) were the first extraterrestrial rovers that were operated remotely from Earth. Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) narrowangle camera (NAC) (Robinson et al. 2010), the Lunokhods’ routes have been reconstructed (Karachevtseva et al. 2013; 2017). Following the rover tracks that are visible on high-resolution LROC NAC images, we identified the exact rover traverses and compared them with data from archive topographic maps created during Soviet lunar missions. Derived LRO data (DEMs and orthomosaics) allowed us to analyze the topography of the Moon area at the local level and to map the Lunokhods’ routes with more details.

Springer Lunokhod.pdf

New reflectance spectra of 40 asteroids: A comparison with previous results and interpretation

Busarev V.V.

Solar System Research, 2016, V. 50, No. 1, P. 13-23.

This paper presents and discusses selected reflectance spectra of 40 Main Belt asteroids. The spectra have been obtained by the author in the Crimean Laboratory of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute (2003–2009). The aim is to search for new spectral features that characterize the composition of the asteroids’ material. The results are compared with earlier findings to reveal substantial irregularities in the distribution of the chemical_mineralogical compositions of the surface material of a number of minor planets (10 Hygiea, 13 Egeria, 14 Irene, 21 Lutetia, 45 Eugenia, 51 Nemausa, 55 Pandora, 64 Angelina, 69 Hesperia, 80 Sappho, 83 Beatrix, 92 Undina, 129 Antigone, 135 Hertha, and 785 Zwetana), which are manifest at different rotation phases.


Spectrophotometry of (32) Pomona, (145) Adeona, (704) Interamnia, (779) Nina, (330825) 2008 XE3, and 2012 QG42 and laboratory study of possible analog samples

Busarev V.V., Barabanov S.I., Rusakov V.S., Puzin V.B., Kravtsov V.V.

Icarus, v. 262 (2015), p. 44-57.

Six asteroids including two NEAs, one of which is PHA, accessible for observation in September 2012 were investigated using a low-resolution (R 100) spectrophotometry in the range 0.35–0.90 lm with the aim to study features of their reflectance spectra. A high-altitude position of our Terskol Observatory (3150 m above sea level) favorable for the near-UV and visible-range observations of celestial objects allowed us to probably detect some new spectral features of the asteroids. Two subtle absorption bands centered at 0.53 and 0.74 lm were found in the reflectance spectra of S-type (32) Pomona and interpreted as signs of presence of pyroxenes in the asteroid surface matter and its different oxidation. Very similar absorption bands centered at 0.38, 0.44 and 0.67–0.71 lm have been registered in the reflectance spectra of (145) Adeona, (704) Interamnia, and (779) Nina of primitive types. We performed laboratory investigations of ground samples of known carbonaceous chondrites, Orguel (CI), Mighei (CM2), Murchison (CM2), Boriskino (CM2), and seven samples of low-iron Mg serpentines as possible analogs of the primitive asteroids. In the course of this work, we discovered an intense absorption band (up to 25%) centered at 0.44 lm in reflectance spectra of the low-Fe serpentine samples.



 S. G. Pugacheva and V. V. Shevchenko, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, 13 Universitetsky pr., 119992 Moscow, Russia, pugach@sai.msu.ru.

Pugacheva LPS 41.pdf

Spectral Studies of Asteroids 21 Lutetia and 4 Vesta as Objects of Space Missions V. V. Busarev

Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii pr. 13, Moscow, 119992 Russia
Received December 21, 2009


Asteroids 10 Hygiea, 135 Hertha, and 196 Philomela: Heterogeneity of the Material from the Reflectance Spectra

V. V. Busarev
Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii pr. 13, Moscow, 119992 Russia
Received December 21, 2009