Papers submitted to the symposium
Comments and discussion
Temperature of regolith in cold traps on the moon
A.A. Berezhnoi, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia
Resume. If the regoliths mean temperature at 1-2 cm depth
is the same as the surface one, the cold-trap H2O, SO2, CO2
ices are stable. If the regolith in the upper 1-2 cm layer does not contain
water ice then the mean temperature at 20-30 cm depths is 50-60 K higher than on
the surface and SO2, CO2 ices are unstable in these
conditions. Our results can be checked during the observations of the thermal
emission of polar lunar regolith at 0.1 mm - 10 cm. If the mean radio
temperature of the polar regolith does not increase with increasing wavelength,
this fact can be considered indirect evidence for the existence of water ice on
RadioMoonE.doc - 97 KB.
RadioMoonE.pdf - 16 KB.
Early lunar activities of the USA, and an American view
of the early Soviet lunar program
James D. Burke, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
Resume. This paper summarizes the starting phase of
American robotic lunar programs. It includes comments on the then-prevailing
political situation within the United States, and it also touches on the effects
of competition between the US and the USSR in the immediate aftermath of
Sputnik. It is appropriate now to look back at those times, especially as some
of the relevant data in both countries, previously secret, have now been
declassified and released for public use. Though the early lunar missions
yielded only limited scientific information, they did set both nations' programs
on a path toward later great advances in our understanding of the Moon.
activities.doc - 35 KB.
activities.pdf - 22 KB.
"South Pole - Aitken" Basin on the First Images of the Lunar
V.I. Chikmachev and V.V. Shevchenko, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii pr. 13, Moscow, Russia
Resume. The history of discovery of the giant basin in
the southern region of the Moon named on the first images of the lunar far-side
Mare Ingenii by IAU Task Group for Lunar Nomenclature (IAU General Assemblu,
Berkley, USA,1961) is given.
South Pole.doc - 256 KB.
South Pole.pdf - 255 KB.
Physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil
V.Gromov, VNIITRANSMASH, St. Petersburg, Russia
Resume. The purpose of this paper is to systematise and
review the series of investigation concerning the physical and mechanical
properties of the soil on the Moon. The results of these investigations permit a
deeper understanding of the soil-forming processes of the uppermost layers on
the Moon and on the other planets. They are also needed to clarify general
trends and to provide basic data and engineering models in order to develop new
techniques for planetary exploration. This seems to be of vital importance
nowadays, because we are on the eve of a new stage in the development of
missions to the Moon and the investigation of other planets.
phmp-ls.doc - 56 KB.
phmp-ls.pdf - 40 KB.
Lunar Base Development Issues, Technology Requirements, and
Peter Eckart, Assistant Professor, Division of Astronautics, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching, Germany
peter.doc - 51 KB.
peter.pdf - 28 KB.
Lunar figure and lunar libration as a clue to lunar interior
Alexander Gusev, Natasha Petrova, Naufal Rizvanov, Kazan state university & Engelgrdt's astronomical observatory, Dpt. of Astron. & Gravit., Russia.
lun_net.doc - 38 KB.
lun_net.pdf - 62 KB.
Millennium challenges for living and working in space
Philip R. Harris, Ph.D., Management/Space Psychologist & Author, HARRIS INTERNATIONAL, LTD., LaJolla, California 92037, U.S.A.
Millennium Challenges.doc - 102 KB.
Millennium Challenges.pdf - 63 KB.
Lipskiy-Rodionova' Lunar Antipodes as Precursors of a regular
G.G.Kochemasov, IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Resume. Summary: The pioneering works of Yu. N. Lipskiy
and Zh. F. Rodionova on regularities in lunar tectonics (1972-1975) were later
used in developing a general planetary wave tectonics conception. It shows a
regular character of tectonic dichotomy, sectoring, granularity of celestial
bodies, including stars. It connects widespread variability of stellar
atmospheres with their wave induced structures.
lipskiy.doc - 88 KB.
lipskiy.pdf - 116 KB.
On the Future of Lunar Development
H.H.Koelle, Aerospace Institute Technical University Berlin, Germany
Resume. Spaceflight can be considered as a natural, an
essential and a logical step of the evolution of the human species. Exploring
space, learning to live and work in space, and using its natural resources, will
improve the quality of life on Earth and last-not-least enhance the survival
chances of our civilization!
future.doc - 47 KB.
future.pdf - 34 KB.
Remote determination of lunar soil maturity
P.C.Pinet1, V.V.Shevchenko2, S.Chevrel1, Y.Daydou1, T.P.Skobeleva2, O.I.Kvaratskhelia3, C.Rosemberg1,
1UMR 5562 "Dynamique Terrestre et Planetaire"/CNRS/UPS, Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, 14 Av.E.Belin, Toulouse, 31400 France; 2Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, 119899, Russia, 3Abastumany Astrophysical Observatory, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Georgia
Resume. A detailed remote sensing survey of ten lunar
regions of mare and highland types has been carried out by means of Clementine
spectro-imaging data with the purpose of establishing the regional distribution
of the maturity state and weight percent of iron content in the lunar soils. The
data are used to obtain a scale of conformity between spectral index of maturity
r, spectropolarization index, and maturity index Is/FeO.
sym-pap-a.doc - 253 KB.
sym-pap-a.pdf - 114 KB.
The Thermal Radiation of the Lunar Surface in the IR Range of
the Spectrum (10-12 mkm)
S.G. Pugacheva, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia
Resume. In the present paper, the implementation of the
method for calibrating IR images is considered by example of calibrating three
IR lunar-surface images transmitted by the first Russian geostationary
meteorological satellite (GOMS). The Moon's image, scanned simultaneously with
the Earth's image, is used for image calibrating as a steady-state source of
visible and IR radiation. The photographs were obtained in IR (10.5-12.5 mkm)
and visible (0.4-0.7 mkm) spectral ranges. The formulas of the analytical model
of the Moon's thermal emission and drawings of the thermal indicatrix in the
vector form are presented.
ir_luna_e.doc - 457 KB.
ir_luna_e.pdf - 307 KB.
Surnames of the astronomers in the names of the lunar objects
S.G.Pugacheva, V.V.Shevchenko, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia
Resume. The results of the statistic selection of the lunar craters,
which were called by names of the famous astronomers, are presented.
enome.doc - 20 KB.
enome.pdf - 4 KB.
History of development of selenodesy and dynamics of the Moon in Kazan
N.G.Rizvanov, L.I.Rakhimov, Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory, Kazan, Russia
Resume. The brief history of development of
heliometric and positional observations of the Moon in Kazan university and
Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory from the end of the last century till now
days is given. All aspects of research of a figure, rotation and gravitational
field of the Moon are considered as well as other close to them questions.
kazan.doc - 89 KB.
kazan.pdf - 74 KB.
Maps and Globes of the Moon compiled with participation of
the Department of Lunar and Planetary Investigation
J.F.Rodionova, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute Moscow University, Moscow, Russia
Resume. A brief description of the mapping of the Moon
carried out with the participation of the scientific workers of SAI and with the
guidance of Y.N.Lipsky is taken.
maps.doc - 691 KB.
maps.pdf - 329 KB.
Swirl distribution on the lunar surface: locations antipodal to the
V.V.Shevchenko, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia
Resume. The nature of diffuse albedo anomalies on the lunar
surface that look like swirls is one of most interesting mystery in current
lunar studies. There are two main classes of hypothesises of the swirl origin:
formation of the swirls in the regions antipodal to large impact basins (1), and
formation of the swirls in result of cometary impacts (2).
ant.doc - 169 KB.
ant.pdf - 183 KB.
2050: An Industrial Lunar Base Concept
A.G.Sizentsev1, V.V.Shevchenko2, V.F.Semenov3, G.M.Baidal1,
1Korolev Energia Rocket and Space Corparation, Korolev, Russia,
2Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia,
3Keldysh Research Center, Moscow, Russia
Resume. The discussed concept presents a phase in the
industrial development of the base, when it becomes capable of building first
experimental space power stations using solar energy to supply power to Earth.
At that phase the permanent lunar base turns into a settlement with a population
of up to 200.
baseen.doc - 959 KB.
baseen.pdf - 3261 KB.
The part played by the department of lunar and planetary studies of the
sternberg astronomical institute
of the Moscow State University in the lunar exploration by means of rocket and space technology
B.I. Sotnikov, G.M.Baidal, G.A. Sizentsev, S.P.Korolev, RSC Energia
lipsky.doc - 42 KB.
lipsky.pdf - 16 KB.
What Did They Do on the Moon? A Proposal for an International
Atlas of Lunar Exploration
Philip J. Stooke, Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2
Resume. The exploration of the Moon by spacecraft began
in 1959 with the impact of Luna 2 and the first photography of the far side by
Luna 3. On the fortieth anniversary of these pioneering flights it is
appropriate to look back at the history of lunar exploration. What dreams were
fulfilled, and what others never came to fruition? I propose the creation of an
International Atlas of Lunar Exploration to tell this story in cartographic form.
It would provide a detailed record of the subject, capable of serving as a
foundation for future scholarship in the planetary sciences and in the history
of space exploration.
sternber.doc - 459 KB.
sternber.pdf - 860 KB.
The example of reference for the symposium paper
P.C.Pinet, V.V.Shevchenko, S.Chevrel, Y.Daydou, T.P.Skobeleva, O.I.Kvaratskhelia, C.Rosemberg.
Determination of lunar soil maturity. The International Jubilee Symposium
"The Scientific Results of Space Research of the Moon".
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute. Moscow. 2000. Internet Symposium:
sym-pap-a.doc - 253 KB
sym-pap-a.pdf - 115 KB