A.A. Berezhnoi, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia
Resume. If the regoliths mean temperature at 1-2 cm depth is the same as the surface one, the cold-trap H2O, SO2, CO2 ices are stable. If the regolith in the upper 1-2 cm layer does not contain water ice then the mean temperature at 20-30 cm depths is 50-60 K higher than on the surface and SO2, CO2 ices are unstable in these conditions. Our results can be checked during the observations of the thermal emission of polar lunar regolith at 0.1 mm - 10 cm. If the mean radio temperature of the polar regolith does not increase with increasing wavelength, this fact can be considered indirect evidence for the existence of water ice on the Moon.
James D. Burke,
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
Resume. This paper summarizes the starting phase of American robotic lunar programs. It includes comments on the then-prevailing political situation within the United States, and it also touches on the effects of competition between the US and the USSR in the immediate aftermath of Sputnik. It is appropriate now to look back at those times, especially as some of the relevant data in both countries, previously secret, have now been declassified and released for public use. Though the early lunar missions yielded only limited scientific information, they did set both nations' programs on a path toward later great advances in our understanding of the Moon.
V.I. Chikmachev and V.V. Shevchenko,
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii pr. 13, Moscow, Russia
Resume. The history of discovery of the giant basin in the southern region of the Moon named on the first images of the lunar far-side Mare Ingenii by IAU Task Group for Lunar Nomenclature (IAU General Assemblu, Berkley, USA,1961) is given.
VNIITRANSMASH, St. Petersburg, Russia
Resume. The purpose of this paper is to systematise and review the series of investigation concerning the physical and mechanical properties of the soil on the Moon. The results of these investigations permit a deeper understanding of the soil-forming processes of the uppermost layers on the Moon and on the other planets. They are also needed to clarify general trends and to provide basic data and engineering models in order to develop new techniques for planetary exploration. This seems to be of vital importance nowadays, because we are on the eve of a new stage in the development of missions to the Moon and the investigation of other planets.
Peter Eckart, Assistant Professor,
Division of Astronautics, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching, Germany
Alexander Gusev, Natasha Petrova, Naufal Rizvanov,
Kazan state university & Engelgrdt's astronomical observatory, Dpt. of Astron. & Gravit., Russia.
Philip R. Harris, Ph.D., Management/Space Psychologist & Author,
HARRIS INTERNATIONAL, LTD., LaJolla, California 92037, U.S.A.
IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Resume. Summary: The pioneering works of Yu. N. Lipskiy and Zh. F. Rodionova on regularities in lunar tectonics (1972-1975) were later used in developing a general planetary wave tectonics conception. It shows a regular character of tectonic dichotomy, sectoring, granularity of celestial bodies, including stars. It connects widespread variability of stellar atmospheres with their wave induced structures.
Aerospace Institute Technical University Berlin, Germany
Resume. Spaceflight can be considered as a natural, an essential and a logical step of the evolution of the human species. Exploring space, learning to live and work in space, and using its natural resources, will improve the quality of life on Earth and last-not-least enhance the survival chances of our civilization!
P.C.Pinet1, V.V.Shevchenko2, S.Chevrel1,
Y.Daydou1, T.P.Skobeleva2, O.I.Kvaratskhelia3,
1UMR 5562 "Dynamique Terrestre et Planetaire"/CNRS/UPS, Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, 14 Av.E.Belin, Toulouse, 31400 France; 2Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, 119899, Russia, 3Abastumany Astrophysical Observatory, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Georgia
Resume. A detailed remote sensing survey of ten lunar regions of mare and highland types has been carried out by means of Clementine spectro-imaging data with the purpose of establishing the regional distribution of the maturity state and weight percent of iron content in the lunar soils. The data are used to obtain a scale of conformity between spectral index of maturity r, spectropolarization index, and maturity index Is/FeO.
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia
Resume. In the present paper, the implementation of the method for calibrating IR images is considered by example of calibrating three IR lunar-surface images transmitted by the first Russian geostationary meteorological satellite (GOMS). The Moon's image, scanned simultaneously with the Earth's image, is used for image calibrating as a steady-state source of visible and IR radiation. The photographs were obtained in IR (10.5-12.5 mkm) and visible (0.4-0.7 mkm) spectral ranges. The formulas of the analytical model of the Moon's thermal emission and drawings of the thermal indicatrix in the vector form are presented.
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia
Resume. The results of the statistic selection of the lunar craters, which were called by names of the famous astronomers, are presented.
Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory, Kazan, Russia
Resume. The brief history of development of heliometric and positional observations of the Moon in Kazan university and Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory from the end of the last century till now days is given. All aspects of research of a figure, rotation and gravitational field of the Moon are considered as well as other close to them questions.
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute Moscow University, Moscow, Russia
Resume. A brief description of the mapping of the Moon carried out with the participation of the scientific workers of SAI and with the guidance of Y.N.Lipsky is taken.
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia
Resume. The nature of diffuse albedo anomalies on the lunar
surface that look like swirls is one of most interesting mystery in current
lunar studies. There are two main classes of hypothesises of the swirl origin:
formation of the swirls in the regions antipodal to large impact basins (1), and
formation of the swirls in result of cometary impacts (2).
A.G.Sizentsev1, V.V.Shevchenko2, V.F.Semenov3, G.M.Baidal1,
1Korolev Energia Rocket and Space Corparation, Korolev, Russia, 2Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia,
3Keldysh Research Center, Moscow, Russia
Resume. The discussed concept presents a phase in the industrial development of the base, when it becomes capable of building first experimental space power stations using solar energy to supply power to Earth. At that phase the permanent lunar base turns into a settlement with a population of up to 200.
B.I. Sotnikov, G.M.Baidal, G.A. Sizentsev,
S.P.Korolev, RSC Energia
Philip J. Stooke,
Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2
Resume. The exploration of the Moon by spacecraft began in 1959 with the impact of Luna 2 and the first photography of the far side by Luna 3. On the fortieth anniversary of these pioneering flights it is appropriate to look back at the history of lunar exploration. What dreams were fulfilled, and what others never came to fruition? I propose the creation of an International Atlas of Lunar Exploration to tell this story in cartographic form. It would provide a detailed record of the subject, capable of serving as a foundation for future scholarship in the planetary sciences and in the history of space exploration.
G.G. Kochemasov, IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Philip J. Stooke, Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario.