Papers submitted to the symposium

Temperature of regolith in cold traps on the moon

A.A. Berezhnoi, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia

Resume. If the regoliths mean temperature at 1-2 cm depth is the same as the surface one, the cold-trap H2O, SO2, CO2 ices are stable. If the regolith in the upper 1-2 cm layer does not contain water ice then the mean temperature at 20-30 cm depths is 50-60 K higher than on the surface and SO2, CO2 ices are unstable in these conditions. Our results can be checked during the observations of the thermal emission of polar lunar regolith at 0.1 mm - 10 cm. If the mean radio temperature of the polar regolith does not increase with increasing wavelength, this fact can be considered indirect evidence for the existence of water ice on the Moon.


Early lunar activities of the USA, and an American view of the early Soviet lunar program

James D. Burke,
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

Resume. This paper summarizes the starting phase of American robotic lunar programs. It includes comments on the then-prevailing political situation within the United States, and it also touches on the effects of competition between the US and the USSR in the immediate aftermath of Sputnik. It is appropriate now to look back at those times, especially as some of the relevant data in both countries, previously secret, have now been declassified and released for public use. Though the early lunar missions yielded only limited scientific information, they did set both nations' programs on a path toward later great advances in our understanding of the Moon.


"South Pole - Aitken" Basin on the First Images of the Lunar Far-side

V.I. Chikmachev and V.V. Shevchenko,
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii pr. 13, Moscow, Russia

Resume. The history of discovery of the giant basin in the southern region of the Moon named on the first images of the lunar far-side Mare Ingenii by IAU Task Group for Lunar Nomenclature (IAU General Assemblu, Berkley, USA,1961) is given.

South Pole.doc
South Pole.pdf

Physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil

VNIITRANSMASH, St. Petersburg, Russia

Resume. The purpose of this paper is to systematise and review the series of investigation concerning the physical and mechanical properties of the soil on the Moon. The results of these investigations permit a deeper understanding of the soil-forming processes of the uppermost layers on the Moon and on the other planets. They are also needed to clarify general trends and to provide basic data and engineering models in order to develop new techniques for planetary exploration. This seems to be of vital importance nowadays, because we are on the eve of a new stage in the development of missions to the Moon and the investigation of other planets.


Lunar Base Development Issues, Technology Requirements, and Research Needs

Peter Eckart, Assistant Professor,
Division of Astronautics, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching, Germany


Lunar figure and lunar libration as a clue to lunar interior

Alexander Gusev, Natasha Petrova, Naufal Rizvanov,
Kazan state university & Engelgrdt's astronomical observatory, Dpt. of Astron. & Gravit., Russia.


Millennium challenges for living and working in space

Philip R. Harris, Ph.D., Management/Space Psychologist & Author,
HARRIS INTERNATIONAL, LTD., LaJolla, California 92037, U.S.A.

Millennium Challenges.doc
Millennium Challenges.pdf

Lipskiy-Rodionova' Lunar Antipodes as Precursors of a regular Wave Planetology

IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Resume. Summary: The pioneering works of Yu. N. Lipskiy and Zh. F. Rodionova on regularities in lunar tectonics (1972-1975) were later used in developing a general planetary wave tectonics conception. It shows a regular character of tectonic dichotomy, sectoring, granularity of celestial bodies, including stars. It connects widespread variability of stellar atmospheres with their wave induced structures.


On the Future of Lunar Development

Aerospace Institute Technical University Berlin, Germany

Resume. Spaceflight can be considered as a natural, an essential and a logical step of the evolution of the human species. Exploring space, learning to live and work in space, and using its natural resources, will improve the quality of life on Earth and last-not-least enhance the survival chances of our civilization!


Remote determination of lunar soil maturity

P.C.Pinet1, V.V.Shevchenko2, S.Chevrel1, Y.Daydou1, T.P.Skobeleva2, O.I.Kvaratskhelia3, C.Rosemberg1,

1UMR 5562 "Dynamique Terrestre et Planetaire"/CNRS/UPS, Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, 14 Av.E.Belin, Toulouse, 31400 France; 2Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, 119899, Russia, 3Abastumany Astrophysical Observatory, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Georgia

Resume. A detailed remote sensing survey of ten lunar regions of mare and highland types has been carried out by means of Clementine spectro-imaging data with the purpose of establishing the regional distribution of the maturity state and weight percent of iron content in the lunar soils. The data are used to obtain a scale of conformity between spectral index of maturity r, spectropolarization index, and maturity index Is/FeO.


The Thermal Radiation of the Lunar Surface in the IR Range of the Spectrum (10-12 mkm)

S.G. Pugacheva,
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia

Resume. In the present paper, the implementation of the method for calibrating IR images is considered by example of calibrating three IR lunar-surface images transmitted by the first Russian geostationary meteorological satellite (GOMS). The Moon's image, scanned simultaneously with the Earth's image, is used for image calibrating as a steady-state source of visible and IR radiation. The photographs were obtained in IR (10.5-12.5 mkm) and visible (0.4-0.7 mkm) spectral ranges. The formulas of the analytical model of the Moon's thermal emission and drawings of the thermal indicatrix in the vector form are presented.


Surnames of the astronomers in the names of the lunar objects

S.G.Pugacheva, V.V.Shevchenko,
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia

Resume. The results of the statistic selection of the lunar craters, which were called by names of the famous astronomers, are presented.


History of development of selenodesy and dynamics of the Moon in Kazan

N.G.Rizvanov, L.I.Rakhimov,
Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory, Kazan, Russia

Resume. The brief history of development of heliometric and positional observations of the Moon in Kazan university and Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory from the end of the last century till now days is given. All aspects of research of a figure, rotation and gravitational field of the Moon are considered as well as other close to them questions.


Maps and Globes of the Moon compiled with participation of the Department of Lunar and Planetary Investigation

Sternberg State Astronomical Institute Moscow University, Moscow, Russia

Resume. A brief description of the mapping of the Moon carried out with the participation of the scientific workers of SAI and with the guidance of Y.N.Lipsky is taken.


Swirl distribution on the lunar surface: locations antipodal to the young basins?

Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia

Resume. The nature of diffuse albedo anomalies on the lunar surface that look like swirls is one of most interesting mystery in current lunar studies. There are two main classes of hypothesises of the swirl origin: formation of the swirls in the regions antipodal to large impact basins (1), and formation of the swirls in result of cometary impacts (2).


2050: An Industrial Lunar Base Concept

A.G.Sizentsev1, V.V.Shevchenko2, V.F.Semenov3, G.M.Baidal1,
1Korolev Energia Rocket and Space Corparation, Korolev, Russia, 2Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia,
3Keldysh Research Center, Moscow, Russia

Resume. The discussed concept presents a phase in the industrial development of the base, when it becomes capable of building first experimental space power stations using solar energy to supply power to Earth. At that phase the permanent lunar base turns into a settlement with a population of up to 200.


The part played by the department of lunar and planetary studies of the sternberg astronomical institute of the Moscow State University in the lunar exploration by means of rocket and space technology

B.I. Sotnikov, G.M.Baidal, G.A. Sizentsev,
S.P.Korolev, RSC Energia


What Did They Do on the Moon? A Proposal for an International Atlas of Lunar Exploration

Philip J. Stooke,
Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2

Resume. The exploration of the Moon by spacecraft began in 1959 with the impact of Luna 2 and the first photography of the far side by Luna 3. On the fortieth anniversary of these pioneering flights it is appropriate to look back at the history of lunar exploration. What dreams were fulfilled, and what others never came to fruition? I propose the creation of an International Atlas of Lunar Exploration to tell this story in cartographic form. It would provide a detailed record of the subject, capable of serving as a foundation for future scholarship in the planetary sciences and in the history of space exploration.


Comments and discussion

Comments on the regular wave planetology

G.G. Kochemasov, IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Comment on the International Jubilee Symposium "The Scientific Results of Space Research of the Moon"

Philip J. Stooke, Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario.