Publications of employees of a department.


Berezhnoi Aleksei A.

Impacts as sources of the exosphere on Mercury

Alexey A. Berezhnoy a,b,c, Boris A. Klumov c
a Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Universitetskij pr., 13, 119991 Moscow, Russia
b Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8087, USA
c Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching, Germany
Received 29 August 2007; revised 13 January 2008

Abstract
Chemical processes associated with meteoroid bombardment of Mercury are considered. Meteoroid impacts lead to production of metal atoms as well as metal oxides and hydroxides in the planetary exosphere. By using quenching theory, the abundances of the main Na-, K-, Ca-, Fe-, Al-, Mg-, Si-, and Ti-containing species delivered to the exosphere during meteoroid impacts were estimated. Based on a correlation between the solar photo rates and the molecular constants of atmospheric diatomic molecules, photolysis lifetimes of metal oxides and SiO are estimated. Meteoroid impacts lead to the formation of hot metal atoms (0.2–0.4 eV) produced directly during impacts and of very hot metal atoms (1–2 eV) produced by the subsequent photolysis of oxides and hydroxides in the exosphere of Mercury. The concentrations of impact-produced atoms of the main elements in the exosphere are estimated relative to the observed concentrations of Ca, assumed to be produced mostly by ion sputtering. Condensation of dust grains can significantly reduce the concentrations of impact-produced atoms in the exosphere. Na, K, and Fe atoms are delivered to the exosphere directly by impacts while Ca, Al, Mg, Si, and Ti atoms are produced by the photolysis of their oxides and hydroxides. The chemistry of volatile elements such as H, S, C, and N during meteoroid bombardment is also considered. Our conclusions about the temperature and the concentrations of impact-produced atoms in the exosphere of Mercury may be checked by the Messenger spacecraft in the near future and by BepiColombo spacecraft some years later.

IcarusCorrectedProof.pdf


Petrologic mapping of the Moon using Fe, Mg, and Al abundances

A.A. Berezhnoy a,*, N. Hasebe a, M. Kobayashi a, G. Michael b, N. Yamashita a
a Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, 169-8555 Tokyo, Japan
b German Aerospace Centre, Institute for Planetary Research, Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin-Adlershof, Germany
Received 16 August 2004; received in revised form 27 January 2005; accepted 1 March 2005

Abstract
A comparison between the abundances of major elements on the Moon determined by Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer and those in returned lunar samples is performed. Lunar Prospector shows higher Mg and Al content and lower Si content in western maria in comparison with the lunar sample collection. Lunar Prospector overestimated the Mg content by about 20%. There are no elemental anomalies at the lunar poles: this is additional evidence for the presence of polar lunar hydrogen. Using Mg, Fe, and Al abundances, petrologic maps containing information about the abundances of ferroan anorthosites, mare basalts, and Mgrich rocks are derived. This approach is useful for searching for cryptomaria and Mg-rich rocks deposits on the lunar surface. A search is implemented for rare rock types (dunites and pyroclastic deposits). Ca-rich, Al-low small-area anomalies are detected in the far side highlands.

7305CorrectedProof.pdf


A three end-member model for petrologic analysis of lunar prospector gamma-ray spectrometer data

A.A. Berezhnoya,1, N. Hasebea, M. Kobayashia, G.G. Michaelb,_, O. Okudairaa, N. Yamashitaa
aAdvanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, 169-8555 Tokyo, Japan
bGerman Aerospace Centre, Institute for Planetary Research, Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin-Adlershof, Germany
Received 24 March 2004; received in revised form 10 February 2005; accepted 20 February 2005

Abstract
We analyze preliminary Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer data. Al–Mg and Fe–Mg petrologic maps of the Moon show that Mg-rich rocks are located in Mare Frigoris, the South Pole Aitken basin, and in some cryptomaria. Analysis of distances of Lunar Prospector pixels from three end-member plane in Mg–Al–Fe space reveals existence of Ca-rich, Al-low small-area anomalies in the farside highlands. An Mg–Th–Fe petrologic technique can be used for estimation of abundances of ferroan anorthosites, mare basalts, KREEP basalts, and Mg-rich rocks.

PSS_1833.pdf


Interpretation of the microwave non-thermal radiation of the Moon during impact events

V. Grimalsky1, A. Berezhnoy2, 3, A. Kotsarenko4, N. Makarets5, S. Koshevaya6, and R. P´erez Enr´ıquez4

1Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Puebla, Mexico
2Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
3Now at: Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia
4Centro de Geociencias, Juriquilla, UNAM, Quer´etaro, Mexico
5Kyiv National Shevchenko University, Faculty of Physics, Kyiv, Ukraine
6Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (UAEM), CIICAp, Cuernavaca, Mexico
Received: 30 June 2004 – Revised: 23 November 2004 – Accepted: 24 November 2004 – Published: 30 November 2004

Abstract
The results of recent observations of the nonthermal electromagnetic (EM) emission at wavelengths of 2.5 cm, 13 cm, and 21 cm are summarized. After strong impacts of meteorites or spacecrafts (Lunar Prospector) with the Moon’s surface, the radio emissions in various frequency ranges were recorded. The most distinctive phenomenon is the appearance of quasi-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of 3–10K during several hours. The mechanism concerning the EM emission from a propagating crack within a piezoactive dielectric medium is considered. The impact may cause the global acoustic oscillations of the Moon. These oscillations lead to the crackening of the Moon’s surface. The propagation of a crack within a piezoactive medium is accompanied by the excitation of an alternative current source. It is revealed that the source of the EM emission is the effective transient magnetization that appears in the case of a moving crack in piezoelectrics. The moving crack creates additional non-stationary local mechanical stresses around the apex of the crack, which generate the non-stationary electromagnetic field. For the cracks with a length of 0.1–1μm, the maximum of the EM emission may be in the 1–10GHz range.

NathazardsEarthSystSci2004.pdf


IDENTIFICATION OF LUNAR ROCK TYPES.

A. A. Berezhnoy1,2, N. Hasebe1, M. Kobayashi1, G. Michael3 and N. Yamashita1 1Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan 2Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia 3German Aerospace Center, Institute for planetary research, Berlin, Germany

Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 40, 2004, Moscow, Russia

09_Berezhnoy_etal.pdf


HIGH PURITY GE GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER ON JAPANESE LUNAR POLAR ORBITER SELENE.

N. Hasebe1, M.-N. Kobayashi1, T. Miyachi1, O. Okudaira1, Y. Yamashita1, E. Shibamura2, T. Takashima3, A.A.Brezhnoy1, 1Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University (Tokyo 169-8555, Japan), 2Saitama Prefectural University (Koshigaya, Saitama 343-8540, Japan), 3Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA (Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510, Japan), 4Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State Univ.

Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 40, 2004, Moscow, Russia

28_Hasebe_etal.pdf


GAMMA RAYS FROM MAJOR ELEMENTS BY THERMAL NEUTRON CAPTURE REACTIONS:
EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATION FOR PLANETARY GAMMA-RAY SPECTROSCOPY.

N. Yamashita1, N. Hasebe1, M. -N. Kobayashi1, T. Miyachi1, O. Okudaira1, E. Shibamura2, A. A. Berezhnoy1,3, 1Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda Univ., 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 Japan (nao.yamashita@toki.waseda.jp), 2Saitama Prefectural University, 3Sternberg Astronomical Institute.

Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 40, 2004, Moscow, Russia

88_Yamashita et_al.pdf


Possibility of the presence of S, SO2, and CO2 at the poles of the Moon

Alexey A. Berezhnoy*, Nobuyuki Hasebe, Takuji Hiramoto
Advanced Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku,Tokyo 169-0071
* Also at Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Email (AB) iac02074@kurenai.waseda.jp  and  Boris A. Klumov  Institute of Dynamics of Geospheres, Moscow, Russia
(Received 2003 March 4)

Abstract
The presence of volatiles near lunar poles is studied. The chemical composition of a lunar atmosphere temporarily produced by comet impact is studied during day and night. C-rich and long-period comets are insufficient sources of water ice on the Moon. O-rich short-period comets deliver significant amounts of H2O, CO2, SO2, and S to the Moon. An observable amount of polar hydrogen can be delivered to the Moon by single impact of O-rich short-period comet with diameter of 5 km in the form of water ice. The areas where CO2 and SO2 ices are stable against the thermal sublimation are estimated as 300 and 1500 km2, respectively. If water ice exists in the 2 cm top regolith layer CO2 and SO2 ices can be stable in the coldest parts of permanently shaded craters. The delivery rate of elemental sulfur near the poles is estimated as 106 g/year. The sulfur content is estimated to be as high as 1 wt % in polar regions. The SELENE gamma-ray spectrometer can detect sulfur polar caps on the Moon if the sulfur content is higher than 1 wt %. This instrument can check the presence of hydrogen and minerals with unusual chemical composition at the lunar poles.

PASJ2449modified.pdfr


Optical spectroscopy of comet C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR) at the Guillermo Harro Astrophysical Observatory in Mexico

Klim I.Churyumov1, Igor V.Luk’yanyk1, Alexei A.Berezhnoi2,3, Vahram H.Chavushyan2, Leo Sandoval4 and Alejandro A.Palma2,4

1Astronomical Observatory, Kyiv National Shevchenko University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
2Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla, Mexico;
3Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia;
4Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico
March 24, 2002

Abstract
Preliminary analysis of middle resolution optical spectra of comet C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR) obtained on November 22, 2001 is given. The emission lines of the molecules C2, C3, CN, NH2, H2O+ and presumably CO (Asundi and triplet bands), C-2 were identified in these spectra. By analyzing the brightness distributions of the C2, C3, CN emission lines along the spectrograph slit we determined some physical parameters of these neutral molecules – the velocity of expansion of molecules within the coma and their lifetimes. The Franck–Condon factors for the CO Asundi bands and C-2 bands were calculated by using a Morse potential model.

EarthMoonPlanets2002.pdf


Radio Emission of the Moon before and after the Lunar Prospector impact, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon.

Berezhnoi A.A., Gusev S.G., Khavroshkin O.B., Poperechenko B.A., Shevchenko V.V., Tzyplakov V.A.

p. 179-181, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 10-14 July 2000

LP-Moon.pdf


Photochemical Model of Impact-Produced Lunar Atmosphere, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon.

Berezhnoi A.A., Klumov B.A.

p. 175-178, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 10-14 July 2000

ILEWG4.pdf


Busarev Vladimir V.

New reflectance spectra of 40 asteroids: A comparison with previous results and interpretation

Busarev V.V.
Solar System Research, 2016, V. 50, No. 1, P. 13-23.

This paper presents and discusses selected reflectance spectra of 40 Main Belt asteroids. The spectra have been obtained by the author in the Crimean Laboratory of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute (2003–2009). The aim is to search for new spectral features that characterize the composition of the asteroids’ material. The results are compared with earlier findings to reveal substantial irregularities in the distribution of the chemical_mineralogical compositions of the surface material of a number of minor planets (10 Hygiea, 13 Egeria, 14 Irene, 21 Lutetia, 45 Eugenia, 51 Nemausa, 55 Pandora, 64 Angelina, 69 Hesperia, 80 Sappho, 83 Beatrix, 92 Undina, 129 Antigone, 135 Hertha, and 785 Zwetana), which are manifest at different rotation phases.

SSR_Busarev16.pdf


Spectrophotometry of (32) Pomona, (145) Adeona, (704) Interamnia, (779) Nina, (330825) 2008 ХЕ3, and 2012 QG42 and laboratory study of possible analog samples

Busarev V.V., Barabanov S.I., Rusakov V.S., Puzin V.B., Kravtsov V.V.
Icarus, v. 262 (2015), p. 44-57.

Six asteroids including two NEAs, one of which is PHA, accessible for observation in September 2012 were investigated using a low-resolution (R 100) spectrophotometry in the range 0.35–0.90 lm with the aim to study features of their reflectance spectra. A high-altitude position of our Terskol Observatory (3150 m above sea level) favorable for the near-UV and visible-range observations of celestial objects allowed us to probably detect some new spectral features of the asteroids. Two subtle absorption bands centered at 0.53 and 0.74 lm were found in the reflectance spectra of S-type (32) Pomona and interpreted as signs of presence of pyroxenes in the asteroid surface matter and its different oxidation. Very similar absorption bands centered at 0.38, 0.44 and 0.67–0.71 lm have been registered in the reflectance spectra of (145) Adeona, (704) Interamnia, and (779) Nina of primitive types. We performed laboratory investigations of ground samples of known carbonaceous chondrites, Orguel (CI), Mighei (CM2), Murchison (CM2), Boriskino (CM2), and seven samples of low-iron Mg serpentines as possible analogs of the primitive asteroids. In the course of this work, we discovered an intense absorption band (up to 25%) centered at 0.44 lm in reflectance spectra of the low-Fe serpentine samples.

Icarus(Busarev_etal15)_Printed.pdf


Characteristic Features in the Spectra of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto

Busarev V. V.
Solar System Research, 2014, v. 48, No. 1, p. 48-61

Abstract
The results of ground-based spectrophotometry of the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter — Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto — are discussed. The observations were carried out in the 0.39–0.92 μm range with the use of the CCD spectrometer mounted on the 1.25-m telescope of the Crimean laboratory of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute in March 2004. It is noted that the calculated reflectance spectra of the satellites mainly agree with the analogous data of the earlier ground_based observations and investigations in the Voyager and Galileo space missions. The present study was aimed at identifying new weak absorption bands (with the relative intensity of ~3–5%) in the reflectance spectra of these bodies with laboratory measurements (Landau et al., 1962; Ramaprasad et al., 1978; Burns, 1993; Busarev et al., 2008). It has been ascertained that the spectra of all of the considered objects contain weak absorption bands of molecular oxygen adsorbed into water ice, which is apparently caused by the radiative implantation of O+ ions into the surface material of the satellites in the magnetosphere of Jupiter. At the same time, spectral features of iron of different valence (Fe2+ and Fe3+) values typical of hydrated silicates were detected on Ganymede and Callisto, while probable indications of methane of presumably endogenous origin, adsorbed into water ice, were found on Europa. The reflectance spectra of the icy Galilean satellites were compared to the reflectance spectra of the asteroids 51 Nemausa (C-class) and 92 Undina (X-class).

SSR-14(Busarev).pdf


Spectral Studies of Asteroids 21 Lutetia and 4 Vesta as Objects of Space Missions

V. V. Busarev
Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii pr. 13, Moscow, 119992 Russia
Received December 21, 2009

SSR-10(Busarev).pdf


Asteroids 10 Hygiea, 135 Hertha, and 196 Philomela: Heterogeneity of the Material from the Reflectance Spectra

V. V. Busarev
Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii pr. 13, Moscow, 119992 Russia
Received December 21, 2009

SSR-11(Busarev).pdf


RESULTS OF REFLECTANCE SPECTRAL, MÖSSBAUER, X-REY AND ELECTRON MICROPROBE INVESTIGATIONS OF TERRESTRIAL SERPENTINE SAMPLES.

V. V. Busarev1, M. V. Volovetskij2, M. N. Taran3, V. I. Fel’dman4, T. Hiroi5 and G. K. Krivokoneva6
1Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, 119992 Moscow, Russia Federation (RF), e-mail: busarev@sai.msu.ru ;
2Division of Mossbauer Spectroscopy, Physical Department of Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, RF
3 Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore Formation, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03142 Kiev, Ukraine;
4Division of Petrology, Geological Department of Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, RF;
5Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912;
6All-Russia Research Institute of Mineral Resources (VIMS), 119017 Moscow, RF.
48th Vernadsky-Brown Microsymposium on Comparative Planetology, October 20-22, 2008, Moscow, abstract No. 6.

V-B- 2008(Bus_etal).doc


Spectral and spectral-frequency methods of investigating atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system

V V Busarev, V V Prokof'eva-Mikhailovskaya, V V Bochkov

UFN2007(Bus_etal)(engl).PDF


Where Some Asteroid Parent Bodies

V.V.Busarev
35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2004, Houston, Texas, Abstract 1026.

LPSC2004a.pdf


POSSIBLE SPECTRAL SIGNS OF SERPENTINES AND CHLORITES IN REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF CELESTIAL SOLID BODIES.

V. V. Busarev1, M. N. Taran2, V. I. Fel’dman3 and V. S. Rusakov41 Lunar and Planetary Department, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, Universitetskij pr., 13, Russian Federation (RF); e-mail: busarev@sai.msu.ru; 2 Department of Spectroscopic Methods, Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore Formation, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03142 Kiev, Palladina pr., 34, Ukraine; 3 Division of Petrology, Geological Department of Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, RF; 4 Division of Mossbauer Spectroscopy, Physical Department of Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, RF.
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 40, 2004, Moscow, Russia

15_Busarev_etal.pdf


The Surface Structure of the M-Type Asteroid 21 Lutetia:Spectral and Frequency Analysis

V. V. Prokof’eva*, V. V. Bochkov*, and V. V. Busarev**
*Research Institute, Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, p/o Nauchnyi, Crimea, 334413 Ukraine
**Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii pr. 13, Moscow, 119899 Russia
Received November 25, 2004

Abstract
—A preliminary study of the surface of the asteroid 21 Lutetia with ground-based methods is of significant importance, because this object is included into the Rosetta space mission schedule. From August 31 to November 20, 2000, about 50 spectra of Lutetia and the same number of spectra of the solar analog HD10307 (G2V) and regional standards were obtained with a resolution of 4 and 3 nm at the MTM-500 telescope television system of the Crimean astrophysical observatory. From these data, the synthetic magnitudes of the asteroid in the BRV color system have been obtained, the reflected light fluxes have been determined in absolute units, and its reflectance spectra have been calculated for a range of 370–740 nm. In addition, from the asteroid reflectance spectra obtained at different rotation phases, the values of the equivalent width of the most intensive absorption band centered at 430–440 nm and attributed to hydrosilicates of the serpentine type have been calculated. A frequency analysis of the values V (1, 0) confirmed the rotation period of Lutetia 0.d3405 (8.h172) and showed a two-humped light curve with a maximal amplitude of 0.m25. The color indices B–V and V–R showed no noticeable variations with this period. A frequency analysis of the equivalent widths of the absorption band of hydrosilicates near 430–440 nm points to the presence of many significant frequencies, mainly from 15 to 20 c/d (c/d is the number of cycles per day), which can be caused by a heterogeneous distribution of hydrated material on the surface of Lutetia. The sizes of these heterogeneities (or spots) on the asteroid surface have been estimated at 3–5 to 70 km with the most frequent value between 30 and 40 km.

SSR-05(Prok-Boch-Bus).pdf


A COMBINED SPECTRAL-FREQUENCY METHOD OF INVESTIGATIONS OF SMALL OR DISTANT PLANETS.

V. V. Busarev1, V. V. Prokof’eva2, and V. V. Bochkov2
1 Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Universitetskij pr., 13, Moscow 119992, Russian Federation, e-mail: busarev@sai.msu.ru;
2 Research Institute Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, p/o Nauchnyi, Crimea 334413, Ukraine, e-mail: prok@crao.crimea.ua

m44_14_busarev_etal.pdf


SPECTRAL SIGNS OF CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITIC MATERIAL ON (21) LUTETIA

V.V. Busarev, Sternberg Astronomical Institute (SAI), Moscow University, Universitetskij pr., 13, Moscow, 119992
Russia, busarev@sai.msu.ru.

ACM08(Bus).pdf


HYDRATED SILICATES ON EDGEWORTH-KUIPER OBJECTS – PROBABLEWAYS OF FORMATION

V. V. BUSAREV, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Russian Federation (RF) (E-mail: busarev@sai.msu.ru);
V. A. DOROFEEVA, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow, RF;
A. B. MAKALKIN, Institute of Earth Physics, RAS, Moscow, RF

Abstract.
Visible-range absorption bands at 600–750 nm were recently detected on two Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) objects (Boehnhardt et al., 2002). Most probably the spectral features may be attributed to hydrated silicates originated in the bodies. We consider possibilities for silicate dressing and silicate aqueous alteration within them. According to present models of the protoplanetary disk, the temperatures and pressures at the EKB distances (30–50 AU) at the time of formation of the EKB
objects (106 to 108 yr) were very low (15–30 K and 10−9–10−10 bar). At these thermodynamic conditions all volatiles excluding hydrogen, helium and neon were in the solid state. An initial mass fraction of silicates (silicates/(ices + dust)) in EKB parent bodies may be estimated as 0.15–0.30.
Decay of the short-lived 26Al in the bodies at the early stage of their evolution and their mutual collisions (at velocities ≥1.5 km s−1) at the subsequent stage were probably two main sources of their heating, sufficient for melting of water ice. Because of the former process, large EKB bodies (R ≥ 100 km) could contain a large amount of liquid water in their interiors for the period of a few 106 yr. Freezing of the internal ocean might have begun at ≈ 5 × 106 yr after formation of the solar nebula (and CAIs). As a result, aqueous alteration of silicates in the bodies could occur.
A probable mechanism of silicate dressing was sedimentation of silicates with refractory organics, resulting in accumulation of large silicate-rich cores. Crushing and removing icy covers under collisions and exposing EKB bodies’ interiors with increased silicate content could facilitate detection of phyllosilicate spectral features.

EM&P2003(Bus-Dor-Mak).pdf


FORMATION OF HYDRATED SILICATES IN EDGEWORTH-KUIPER BELT OBJECTS.

A. B. Makalkin, Institute of Earth Physics, RAS, Moscow, RF (e-mail: makalkin@uipe-ras.scgis.ru); Dorofeeva, V. A. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemisry, (RAS), Moscow, RF (e-mail: dorofeeva@geokhi.ru); V. V. Busarev, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, RF; (e-mail: busarev@sai.msu.ru).
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms063.pdf


SOME OBSERVATIONAL INDICATIONS OF THE HISTORY AND SRUCTURE OF OUR PLANETARY SYSTEM.

V.V. Busarev, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University,
Moscow, Russian Federation; e-mail: busarev@sai.msu.ru.
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 34, October 8-9, 2001, Moscow, Russia

MS058.pdf


OXIDIZED AND HYDRATED SILICATES ON M- AND S- ASTEROIDS: SPECTRAL INDICATIONS.

V. V. Busarev
32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 12-16, 2001, Houston, Texas, Abstract 1927.

LPSC2001a.pdf


Feoktistova Ekaterina A.

Stability of Volatile Species at the Poles of the Moon

Berezhnoy A.A., Kozlova E.A., Shevchenko V.V.

В сборнике Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts, серия Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts, том 43, с. 1396 тезисы

LPSC 2012 1396.pdf


Properties of the impact-produced lunar exosphere during Perseid 2009 meteor shower

A.A. Berezhnoy (1), O.R. Baransky (2), K.I. Churyumov (2), V.V. Kleshchenok (2), E.A. Kozlova (1), V. Mangano (3), V.O. Ponomarenko (2), Yu.V. Pakhomov (4), V.V. Shevchenko (1), yu. I. Velikodsky (5)
(1) Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetskij pr., 13, Moscow, 19991, Russia.
(2) Shevchenko National University, Kiev, Ukraine
(3) Institute Astrophysics and Planetology from Space, INAF, Rome, Italy
(4) Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Science, Pyatnitskaya Street 48, Moscow, 119017 Russia
(5) Institute of Astronomy, Kharkiv National University, 35 Sumskaya Street

EPSC abstract
Vol. 7 EPSC2012-52 2012
European Planetary Congress 2012

EPSC2012-52.pdf


Origin and stability of lunar polar volatiles

Berezhnoy A.A., Kozlova E.A., Sinitsyn M.P., Shangaraev A.A., Shevchenko V.V.

В журнале Advances in Space Research, том 50, с. 1581-1712 DOI
издательство Pergamon Press Ltd. (United Kingdom)

ASR Origin and Stability.pdf


Properties of the impact-produced lunar exosphere during Perseid 2009 meteor shower

A.A. Berezhnoy (1), O.R. Baransky (2), K.I. Churyumov (2), V.V. Kleshchenok (2), E.A. Kozlova (1), V. Mangano (3), V.O. Ponomarenko (2), Yu.V. Pakhomov (4), V.V. Shevchenko (1), yu. I. Velikodsky (5)
(1) Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetskij pr., 13, Moscow, 19991, Russia.
(2) Shevchenko National University, Kiev, Ukraine
(3) Institute Astrophysics and Planetology from Space, INAF, Rome, Italy
(4) Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Science, Pyatnitskaya Street 48, Moscow, 119017 Russia
(5) Institute of Astronomy, Kharkiv National University, 35 Sumskaya Street

EPSC2012-52.pdf


The Cold Traps Near the South Pole of the Moon

Berezhnoy A.A., Kozlova E.A., Shevchenko V.V.

В сборнике 36th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, серия Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts, том 36, с. 1061 тезисы

Houston2005(1).pdf


THE CRATERS SHOEMAKER AND FAUSTINI AS COLD TRAPS FOR VOLATILES

E. A. Kozlova1, V. V. Shevchenko1 . Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, 119899, Moscow, Russia
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 40, 2004, Moscow, Russia

50_Kozlova_Shevchenko.pdf


Lazarev Evgeniy N.

AUTOMATED CREATION OF THE LUNAR HYPSOMETRIC MAP: TECHNIQUES OF COMPILING.

1Shevchenko V.V., 2Shingareva K.B., 1,2Lazarev E.N , 1Rodionova J.F.
1Sternberg State Astronomical Institute (MSU) 119899, 13, Universitetskiy prospect, Moscow, Russia,
2Moscow State University for Geodesy & Cartography (MIIGAiK), 105064, 4, Gorokhovskiy pereulok, Moscow, Russia,  zhecka@inbox.ru.

Automated creation of the lunar hypsometric map techniques of compiling.pdf


RASTER VENUS AND LUNAR MAPS AS A SOURCE FOR OBTAINING VECTOR TOPOGRAPHIC DATA

Evgeniy Lazarev, Janna Rodionova
Evgeniy Lazarev; Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK);
121614, Osenniy bulvar, Moscow, Russia;
+7(495)412-6176, zhecka@inbox.ru
Dr. Janna Rodionova; Sternberg State Astronomical Institute;
119899, 13, Universitetskiy prospect, Moscow, Russia, jeanna@sai.msu.ru.

Abstract
The new hypsometric maps of Venus and the Moon should improve and accelerate studying the surfaces of these planets and relief-forming processes. Additionally, these maps should be useful for students and scientists. The hypsometric map of Venus is produced in Lambert equal-area azimuth projection. Its height contours are obtained using the Magellan altitude data. To create Lunar Subpolar relief map the authors obtained heights from the A. Cook et.al. raster image of South Lunar Subpolar region (latitudes from -60° to -90°) being constructed in stereographic projection. [A.C. Cook, T.R. Watters, M.S. Robinson et.al. (2000) JGR, Vol.105, E5, 12023-12033]. Morphometric investigations of Venus and Lunar South Pole region surface have been fulfilled using our databases. The height profiles of some lunar craters being situated here and detailed profiles of the whole this area created by us describe the features of this region surface with the high resolution up to 100 meters.

RASTER VENUS AND LUNAR MAPS AS A SOURCE FOR OBTAINING VECTOR TOPOGRAPHIC DATA.pdf


THE LUNAR SUBPOLAR RELIEF MAP: THE WAYS AND TECHNIQUES OF COMPILING AND USING.

Evgeniy Lazarev1,2, Zhanna Rodionova2
1Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK) 105064, Gorokhovskiy pereulok, 4, Moscow, Russia zhecka@inbox.ru
2Sternberg State Astronomical Institute 119991, Universitetskiy prospect, 13, Moscow, Russia jeanna@sai.msu.ruю

THE LUNAR SUBPOLAR RELIEF MAP THE WAYS AND TECHNIQUES OF COM.pdf


AUTOMATIC CREATION OF THE HYPSOMETRIC MAP OF VENUS.

E. N. Lazarev1, 2, J. F. Rodionova2.
1Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography, 4 Gorokhovskiy per., Moscow 105064, Russia, e-mail: zhecka@inbox.ru,
2Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, 13 Universitetskiy pr., Moscow 119892, Russia, e-mail: jeanna@sai.msu.ru.

Automatic creation of the hypsometric map of Venus.pdf


Michael Gregory G.

COPRATES CHASMA NORTH WALL INTERIOR LAYERED DEPOSIT: LAYER MEASUREMENTS AND COMPARISON WITH JUVENTAE CHASMA ILDS USING MARS EXPRESS HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO CAMERA (HRSC) DERIVED TOPOGRAPHY

G. Michael 1, E. Hauber1, K. Gwinner1, R. Stesky2, F. Fueten3, D. Reiss1, H. Hoffmann1, R. Jaumann1, G. Neukum4, T. Zegers5, and the HRSC Co-Investigator Team
1Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Berlin, Germany
2Pangaea Scientific, Brockville, Ontario, Canada
3Department of Earth Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada
4Remote Sensing of the Earth and Planets, Freie Universitaet, Berlin, Germany
5ESTEC, ESA, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 42, October 10-12, 2005, Moscow, Russia

m42_50.pdf


THE MORPHOMETRIC ANALISYS OF THE FEATURES OF MARTIAN CRATERS (10 – 20 km).

I.A. Ushkin11, G. G. Michael2.
1. Moscow State University, Vorobjovy Gory, 119899, Moscow, Russia, gray_pigeon@mail.ru .
2. ESA, Noordwijk, the Netherlands. greg.michael@rssd.esa.int.
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 40, 2004, Moscow, Russia

81_Ushkin_Michael.pdf


ESA SMART-1 MISSION TO THE MOON

B.H. Foing1, G. Michael1, G.R. Racca2, A. Marini2, M. Grande, J. Huovelin, J.-L. Josset, H.U. Keller, A. Nathues, D. Koschny, A. Malkki (SMART-1 Science and Technology Working Team)
1ESA Research and Scientific Support Dept., ESTEC/SCI-S
2ESA Science Projects Dept., ESTEC/SCI-PD Bernard.Foing@esa.int
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms019.pdf


SURVEY OF MARS CRATER TOPOGRAPHY FROM MOLA DATA.

Michael G. G., European Space Agency, Research and Scientific Support Department, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, greg.michael@esa.int
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms067.pdf


BEAGLE-2 LANDING SITE ATLAS.

Michael G. G.1, Chicarro A. F.1, Rodionova J. F.2, Shevchenko V. V.2, Iluhina J.2, Kozlova E. A.2
1European Space Agency, Research and Scientific Support Department, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
2Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, greg.michael@esa.int
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms068.pdf


THE MORPHOMETRIC ANALISYS OF THE FEATURES OF MARTIAN CRATERS.

I.A. Ushkin1, G. G. Michael2, E.A. Kozlova3 .
1. Moscow State University, Vorobjovy Gory, 119899, Moscow, Russia, gray_pigeon@mail.ru .
2. ESA, Noordwijk, the Netherlands. greg.michael@rssd.esa.int
3. Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, 119899, Moscow, Russia.
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms090.pdf


Rodionova Zhanna F.

Hypsometric Globe of Mars – 3D Model of the Planet

Zh. F. Rodionova 1, J. A. Brekhovskikh2
1 Sternberg State Astronomical Institute Lomonosov Moscow University, Russia; marss8@mail.ru
2 Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia; julia_br@iki.rssi.ru

Abstract
The new Hypsometric Globe of Mars is based on laser altimeter data of Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The diameter of the globe is 21 cm. Coordinates and the heights of 64 800 points on the surface of Mars were used for creating a 3-D Model of the surface of Mars.. A digital model of the relief was constructed with ArcGIS software. Contour lines were added together with hill-shading on the globe. The names of the main features – lands, plateaus, mountains, lowlands – plains and also some large craters are labeled. The places of landing sites of the spacecrafts are shown.

Rodionova ICC2013.pdf


A TREATMENT OF DATA BANK OF MORPHOLOGIC CATALOGUE OF MERCURIAN CRATERS.

B. D. Sitnikov., E.A. Kozlova, J.F. Rodionova.
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow, jeanna@sai.msu.ru.
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 40, 2004, Moscow, Russia

78_Sitnikov_etal.pdf


AUTOMATIC COMPILING OF HYPSOMETRIC MAP OF A PART OF THE VENUSIAN SURFACE.

E.N. Lasarev 1, J. F. Rodionova 2,
1- Geographical faculty M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University,
2- Sternbrg Sate Astronomical Institute, Universitetskij prospect 13, Moscow 119992, jeanna@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 40, 2004, Moscow, Russia

56_Lasarev_Radionova.pdf


THE NEW DATA ON THE EARLY STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARTH, MARS, THE MOON AND MERCURY.

A.V.Dolitsky1, R.M.Kochetkov2, E.A. Kozlova3, J.F.Rodionova3,
1 - United Institute of Physics of the Earth RAS, Moscow, av13868@comtv.ru,
2 - Moscow Technical University of communication and information, Moscow, krmkrm@rol.ru.
3 – Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow, jeanna@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 40, 2004, Moscow, Russia

21_Dolitsky_etal.pdf


SOME FEATURES OF THE CRATERING OF ISIDIS BASIN.

J.A.Iluhina, A.V.Lagutkina, J.F.Rodionova.
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, jeanna@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms035.pdf


MARS: MOVEMENT OF GEOGRAPHICAL POLES AND DEFORMATION OF ITS SURFACE.

A.V. Dolitsky 1, J. F. Rodionova 2, R M. Kochetkov 3, A. F. Ainetdinova 2
1 - United Institute of Physics of the Earth of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. ab4870@mail.sitek.ru
2 – Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow. jeanna@sai.msu.ru.
3 - Moscow Technical University of communication and information, krmkrm@rol.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms015.pdf


AN ANALYSIS OF THE DATA OF MARS ORBITER LASER ALTIMETER.

Rodionova J1., Iluhina J2., Michael G1,
1Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, jeanna@sai.msu.ru,
2Moscow University
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 34, October 8-9, 2001, Moscow, Russia

MS060.pdf


A HIPSOMETRICAL FEATURES OF THE LUNAR SURFACE FROM THE CLEMENTINE MISSION.

J. F. Rodionova1, O. V. Elkina2, E. A. Kozlova1, V. V.Shevchenko1, P.V. Litvin2.
1. Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, 119899, Moscow, Russia; jeanna@sai.msu.ru.
2. Moscow State University, Vorobjovy Gory, 119899, Moscow,Russia.
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 34, October 8-9, 2001, Moscow, Russia

MS059.pdf


Morphological Catalogue Of The Craters Of Mars.

J. F. Rodionova, K. I. Dekchtyareva, A. A. Khramchikhin, G. G. Michael, S. V. Ajukov, S. G. Pugacheva, V. V. Shevchenko.
Editors: V.V. Shevchenko, A.F. Chicarro. 2000.


Morphological Analysis of the Cratering of the South Pole–Aitken Basin on the Moon

Zh. F. Rodionova and E. A. Kozlova

Morphological.pdf


MORPHOLOGICAL CATALOGUE OF THE CRATERS OF THE MOON

J.F. Rodionova, A.A. Karlov, T.P.Skobeleva, E.V. Konotopskaya, V.V. Shevchenko, K.E. Kozubskiy, K.I.Dekhtyareva, T.F. Smolyakova, L.I. Tishik, E.A. Fedorova

Coordinates, diameters and morphological features of 14 923 craters of the Moon in diameters 10 km and more are available in the catalogue.


Pugacheva Svetlana G.

THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF REGOLITH AT THE MOON’S SOUTH POLE, ACCORDING TO DATA OF LUNAR PROSPECTOR AND LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER MISSIONS.

S. G. Pugacheva and V. V. Shevchenko, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, 13 Universitetsky pr., 119992 Moscow, Russia, pugach@sai.msu.ru.

Pugacheva LPS 41.pdf


Structure of the South Pole–Aitken Lunar Basin

V. V. Shevchenko, V. I. Chikmachev, and S. G. Pugacheva
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetskii pr. 13, Moscow, 119899 Russia
Received April 10, 2007

Abstract
The hypsometric map and the basin height profiles, for the first time relying upon a spherical daturence surface, have been constructed based on the generalization of the heights measured within the hemisphere including the ring structure of the South Pole–Aitken basin. The distribution of the major chemical elements (Fe and Th), depending upon the structure height levels, has been obtained. The relationship between these lunar rock indicators and the height levels of the rock preferential distribution has been revealed. The outer basin ring has been distinguished and the ring structure of the central basin depression has been revealed against a combined hypsometric and geochemical background. A total basin diameter of about 3500 km has been reliably determined for the first time. A unique feature of the basin structure consists in that the arrangement of the basin inner rings does not show a central circular symmetry, which can indicate that a hypothetical impactor moved along the trajectory (or orbit) oriented almost normally to the ecliptic plane. In combination with the revealed very small depth–diameter ratio in the initial basin structure, this circumstance makes it possible to put forward the hypothesis that a comet impact produced the South Pole–Aitken basin.

SSR447.pdf


THE PHOTOMETRIC RESEARCHS OF THE MERCURY’S SURFACE BY MEANS OF DIGITAL MODELS.

S.G. Pugacheva. Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow
University, 13 Universitetsky pr., 119992 Moscow, Russia, pugach@sai.msu.ru.

m44_70_pugacheva.pdf


THE PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN HAPKE’S MODEL FOR ESTIMATION OF THE COMPOSITION OF THE EJECTA LUNAR TERRAINS.

S.G. Pugacheva, V.V.
Shevchenko. Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, 13 Universitetsky pr., 119992 Moscow, Russia, pugach@sai.msu.ru.
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 42, October 10-12, 2005, Moscow, Russia

m42_60.pdf


PHYSICAL AND MINERALOGY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LUNAR REGOLITH IN THE AREAS OF THE THERMAL ANOMALIES.

S. G. Pugacheva, V.V. Shevchenko. Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Russia, pugach@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms080.pdf


ANOMALIES OF THE MOON’S THERMAL EMISSION IN THE IR SPECTRAL RANGE (10.5 - 12.5 micron).

S. G. Pugacheva. Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow, 119899, Russia, pugach@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 34, October 8-9, 2001, Moscow, Russia

MS058.pdf


Chikmachov Vadim I.

AN ORIGIN FOR THE SOUTH POLE-AITKEN BASIN THORIUM. V.I.

Chikmachev, S.G.Pugacheva, Sternberg State Astronomical institute. Moscow University, Moscow, chik@sai.msu.ru.
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 42, October 10-12, 2005, Moscow, Russia

m42_12.pdf


GENERALIZED TOPOGRAPHY OF THE LUNAR SOUTH POLE – AITKEN BASIN.

V.I.Chikmachev, S.G.Pugacheva and V.V.Shevchenko, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, chik@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 40, 2004, Moscow, Russia

17_Chikmachev_etal.pdf


TO THE DISCOVERY OF THE "SOUTH POLE - AITKEN " BASIN.

V. I. Chikmachev and V.V. Shevchenko,
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Universitetsky 13, Moscow, 119899 , Russia,
MICROSYMPOSIUM 34, Topics in Comparative Planetology October 8-9, 2001, Moscow, Russia

MS015.pdf


Anatoly N. Sanovich

SOME PROBLEMS OF THE EVOLUTION OF ASTEROIDS - RUBBLE PILE.

G. A Leikin, A. N. Sanovich. Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow 119899, Russia.
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 34, October 8-9, 2001, Moscow, Russia

MS047.pdf - 68KB


SOME PROBLEMS OF THE EVOLUTION OF ASTEROIDS – RUBBLE PILE.

G. A Leikin, A. N. Sanovich. Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow 119899, Russia.
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 34, October 8-9, 2001, Moscow, Russia

MS047.pdf - 68KB


SOME PROBLEMS OF THE EVOLUTION OF ASTEROID – RUBBLE PILE

G. A. Leikin and A. N. Sanovich, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University,
119992,Moscow,Universitetskij Prosp. 13, Russia , E-mail:san@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms059.pdf - 155KB


ON A TIME SPAN OF ASTEROID – RUBBLE PILE (ARP) CONSOLIDATION AND A REASON OF LOW DENSITY OF SUCH ASTEROIDS.

G. A. Leikin and A.N. Sanovich.
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow, State University, 119992, Moscow, Universitetskij prosp. 13, Russia, E-mail: san@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 40, 2004, Moscow, Russia

58_Leikin_Sanovich.pdf - 76KB


A TIME ESTIMATE FOR CONSOLIDATION AND DISINTEGRATION OF AN ASTEROID – RUBBLE PILE.
THE SIMPLEST MODEL. A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS.

G.A. Leikin, A.N. and Sanovich,
Sternberg, State Astronomical Institute Universitetsky Prosp. 13, Moscow 119992, Russia E-mail: san@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 42, October 10-12, 2005, Moscow, Russia

m42_46.pdf - 10KB


ASTEROIDAL DAMAGE TO THE EARTH: IMPLICATIONS BY ASTEROIDS – RUBBLE PILES.

G. A. Leikin and A. N. Sanovich,
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Universitetsky Prosp. 13, Moscow 119892, Russia, E-mail:san@sai.msu.ru

m44_56_leikin_sanovich.pdf - 73KB

 


Shevchenko Vladislav V.

FEATURES OF THE HYDROGEN DISTRIBUTION AROUND LUNAR CRATERS PROCLUS

AND KEPLER. M.P. Sinitsin, V.V. Shevchenko, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow University,
Moscow, 119992, Russia shev@sai.msu.ru

m44_76_sinitsin_shevchenko.pdf


SPECTRAL FEATURES OF THE AVALANCHE DEPOSITS IN LUNAR CRATER REINER.

V.V.Shevchenko1,2, P.C.Pinet1, S.Chevrel1, Y.Daydou1, T.P.Skobeleva2, O.I.Kvaratskhelia3,
C.Rosemberg1. 1UMR 5562 “Dynamique Terrestre et Planetaire”/CNRS/UPS, Observatoire Midi-
Pyrenees, Toulouse, 31400 France; 2Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow,
119992, Russia, 3Abastumany Astrophysical Observatory, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Georgia.
shev@sai.msu.ru

m44_75_shevchenko_etal.pdf


REMOTE DETERMINATION OF LUNAR SOIL MATURITY.

V.V.Shevchenko1,2, P.C.Pinet1, S.Chevrel1, Y.Daydou1, T.P.Skobeleva2, O.I.Kvaratskhelia3, C.Rosemberg1.
1UMR 5562 “Dynamique Terrestre et Planetaire”/CNRS/UPS, Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, Toulouse, 31400 France;
2Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, 119992, Russia,
3Abastumany Astrophysical Observatory, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Georgia. shev@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms085.pdf


REMOTE METHOD OF IDENTIFICATION OF THE EJECTA LUNAR TERRAINS AND THEIR COMPOSITION FITURES.

V.V. Shevchenko1, 2, P. Pinet2, S. Chevrel2, S.G. Pugacheva1, Y. Daydou2.

1 Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, 13 Universitetsky pr., 119992 Moscow, Russia;
2 UMR 5562/CNES/Observatory Midi-Pyrenees, Toulouse University, 14 avenue E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France. shev@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms084.pdf


MERCURY: LOCAL VARIATIONS OF THE PHOTOMETRIC RELIEF.

V.V.Shevchenko, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow 119992, Russia, shev@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms083.pdf


EVALUATING THE STRUCTURE OF THE SURFACE LAYER OF MERCURY.

V.V.Shevchenko, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow 119992, Russia, shev@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 38, October 27-29, 2003, Moscow, Russia

ms082.pdf


PERMANENTLY SHADOWED AREAS AT THE LUNAR POLES.

V. V. Shevchenko1, E. A. Kozlova1, G. G. Michael1.
1.Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, 119899, Moscow, Russia. shev@sai.msu.ru.
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 34, October 8-9, 2001, Moscow, Russia

MS065.pdf


MERCURY: SURFACE LAYER STRUCTURE FROM OPTICAL PROPERTIES.

V.V.Shevchenko, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Universitetsky 13, Moscow 119899, Russia, shev@sai.msu.ru
Brown University - Vernadsky Institute Microsymposium 34, October 8-9, 2001, Moscow, Russia

MS064.pdf


VARIABLE RADIO EMISSION OF THE MOON AT 25 MM DURING THE LEONID 2000 METEOR SHOWER.

A.A. Berezhnoi (1), E. Bervalds (2), O.B. Khavroshkin (3), G. Ozolins (2), V.V. Shevchenko (1), V.V. Tsyplakov (3)
(1) SAI, Moscow, Russia; (2) VIRAC, Riga, Latvia; (3) UIEP, Moscow, Russia
Geophysical Research Abstracts Volumi 3, 2001.

Radioseismology of the Moon and planets is based on registration and interpretation of electromagnetic radiation of seismic origin. The frequency of such electromagnetic radiation varies from some kHz to the frequency of soft X-ray radiation. The most probable two models of transformation of mechanical stress into electromagnetic radiation are: 1) the formation of new microcracks; 2) charges arising at the peaks of existing cracks drawing under the action of increasing load. We observed the Moon on November 16 - 18 with the 32 m antenna of the Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Center at 12.2 GHz. The half-power beamwidth was 3.5 arcminutes. The DSB bandwidth is 2 x 22 MHz and output time constant is 1 sec. The observable lunar region was a seismic active region (30W, 5S). We could not exactly track the antenna with the velocity of the Moon, an observable region lagged behind and during 30 minutes of observation cycle the beam draw a near 15 arcminutes long trip on the lunar surface in direction to Mare Serentatis. During the morning of November 17 we registered significant quasiperiodic oscillations of the lunar radio emission starting near 1:44 UT. Similar oscillations were registered on November 18 starting near 2:28 UT. More or less intensive oscillations (quasiperiods were equal to 1-2 minutes) were received until November 18, 9:30 UT with bottom to peak heights of some K, sometimes up to 10K. The character of these oscillations is different from atmospheric fluctuations. The time of observed oscillations does not contradicts with predictions of McNaught about the Leonid activity on the Moon. Similar oscillations were registered after the Lunar Prospector impact (July 31, 1999) during observations of the Moon at 13 and 21 cm. These results can be explained by detection of the lunar radio emission of seismic origin. The interpretation of quasiperiodic oscillations in terms of Nikolaevsky's waves is given. Implications of radioseismic method of investigations of the Moon for determination of the intensity of meteor showers on lunar orbit and for estimation of the mineral composition of lunar regolith are described.


THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LUNAR REGOLITH NEAR COLD TRAPS.

Berezhnoi, A.A. (1), Klumov B.A.(2), Shevchenko V.V.(1)
(1) Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia, (2) Institute of Dynamics of Geospheres, Moscow, Russia
Geophysical Research Abstracts Volumi 3, 2001.

In our previous papers we have found that a significant part of cometary matter is captured by the Moon after a low-speed collision between a comet and the Moon. Now we consider the chemical composition of impact vapour formed after a such collision based on new kinetical model of chemical processes. We have found that H2O, CO2, and SO2 are main H-, C-, and S-containing species respectively in the fireball. The temperature in polar regions near cold traps is suitable for the presence of some volatile compounds (sulfur, carbon and hydrocarbons) in the regolith. We estimate an amount of sulfur- and carbon- containing species delivered to lunar polar regions due to cometary impacts. Our estimations can be checked during conduction of observations by the SMART-1 spacecraft.


THE SPACE ANGULAR FUNCTION OF THE MOON'S THERMAL EMISSION (10 -12 MICRON).

S.G. Pugacheva and V.V. Shevchenko
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Universitetskiy pr.13, Moscow, 119899, Russia pugach@sai.msu.ru Fax: 007-095-932-88-41
Geophysical Research Abstracts Volumi 3, 2001.

The features of the lunar surface, varying in their individual properties, have a brightness constant in time, and the dynamics of reflected and own radiation is determined in each case only by the geometry of observing conditions at any given moment. Therefore, using the known characteristics of the lunar features, we can determine the standard values of the radiation emitted or reflected by a great number of particular objects, which form a system of standards in a certain wavelength and energy-flux range. The space function of the Moon's thermal emission was constructed by results of the statistical processing of the database 1655 lunar sites in the vector form. The database contains the brightness characteristics of the emitted and reflected radiation measured in an IR (10-12 mm) and a visible (0.445 mm) range for 23 Moon's phase angles and 1954 lunar regions. The space function is based on physical regularities and statistical relationship between the intensity of thermal and reflected radiation, the geometry of observation and illumination, and the albedo and microrelief of the lunar surface. An analytic formula of the dependence of radiation temperature of the lunar surface on the incidence angular parameters make it possible to calculate the infrared temperature for any geometry of the angular parameters. The root-mean-square error in the determination of the radiation temperature is +1.5 K. The computer images were constructed in the form of contour maps of brightness and temperature, of thermal inertia and other thermal parameters, using the database of brightness and temperatures values for lunar-surface areas.


THE CRATERING FEATURES OF THE BASIN "SOUTH POLE-AITKEN".

J.Rodionova and E.Kozlova Sternberg State Astronomical Institute
Geophysical Research Abstracts Volumi 3, 2001.

Morphological features of craters in the South Pole-Aitken are studied. Craters in the basin are compared to craters located in highland and mare regions. In comparision studies, the following morphological features were considered: the degree of rim degradation; the presence of terraces and faults, hills, peaks and ridges, fissures and chains of small craters, lava on the crater floor; the character of the floor; and the presence of ray systems. In the basin 3.8 million sq. km in area, 1538 craters of 10 km in diameter or larger are found. Craters in the South Pole-Aitken are found to be less degraded than those in the mare region. Additionaly, terraces on the inner slopes of craters in the basin are less degraded, and more faults are observed in the craters in the highland region. The craters in the three regions studed are similar in the presence of peaks and hills, while the density of craters with fissures and chains of small craters on the floor are greater in the mare! region. No craters with ray systems are found in the basin. The South Pole Aitken Basin is assumed to have formed late in the period of heavy bombardment. The morphology of craters in the mare region is found to differ drastically from those in the basin and the highland region. A low crater density and the abundance of crater-ruins and craters with faults in the mare region are due to lava flooding of ancient depressions during the period of basaltic volcanism and the destruction of the majority of craters formed in the preceding heavy bombardment period. The mare regions differs in the densities of craters with fissures and chains of small craters, peaks and lavas on the floor. We attribute these distinctions to the difference in endogenic processes that proceeded in the considered regions. The endogenic processes should reveal themselves more often in the mare regions because the lunar crust here is much thinner than in the highland regions.


LUNAR RESOURCES FOR RESCUE OF MANKIND IN XXI CENTURY.

V.V.Shevchenko
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia shev@sai.msu.ru
Geophysical Research Abstracts Volumi 3, 2001.

In results of many ecological investigations it has been found that the permissible level of the energy production inside Earth's environment is about 0.1% of solar energy received by Earth's surface. The value is about 90 TW (90 x 10 12 Watt). On the other hand, the general estimation shows that the total energy use (and production, accordingly) in the world is about 16 TW in the end of 2000. This value will increase by factor of two (about 34 TW) to the year 2050. If the tendency will be preserved the total energy production in the world will approach to 98 TW to the year 2100. It means the permissible level of the energy production inside Earth's environment will be exceeded. But it is obviously that the processes destroying Earth's environment in global scale will begin before it - after middle of century. Hence, the first result of the practical actions for rescue of the Earth's environment must be obtained not late than in 2020 - 2030. It means that general decisions must be approved now or in the beginning of the new century. The only way to resolve this problem consists in the use of extraterrestrial resources. The nearest available body - source of space resources is the Moon. The most known now space energy resource is lunar helium-3. Very likely, the lunar environment contains new resource possibilities unknown now. So, the lunar research space programs must have priority not only in fundamental planetary science, but in practical purposes too..


Papers submitted to the symposium

Temperature of regolith in cold traps on the moon

A.A. Berezhnoi, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia

Resume. If the regoliths mean temperature at 1-2 cm depth is the same as the surface one, the cold-trap H2O, SO2, CO2 ices are stable. If the regolith in the upper 1-2 cm layer does not contain water ice then the mean temperature at 20-30 cm depths is 50-60 K higher than on the surface and SO2, CO2 ices are unstable in these conditions. Our results can be checked during the observations of the thermal emission of polar lunar regolith at 0.1 mm - 10 cm. If the mean radio temperature of the polar regolith does not increase with increasing wavelength, this fact can be considered indirect evidence for the existence of water ice on the Moon.

RadioMoonE.doc
RadioMoonE.pdf


Early lunar activities of the USA, and an American view of the early Soviet lunar program

James D. Burke,
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

Resume. This paper summarizes the starting phase of American robotic lunar programs. It includes comments on the then-prevailing political situation within the United States, and it also touches on the effects of competition between the US and the USSR in the immediate aftermath of Sputnik. It is appropriate now to look back at those times, especially as some of the relevant data in both countries, previously secret, have now been declassified and released for public use. Though the early lunar missions yielded only limited scientific information, they did set both nations' programs on a path toward later great advances in our understanding of the Moon.

activities.doc
activities.pdf


"South Pole - Aitken" Basin on the First Images of the Lunar Far-side

V.I. Chikmachev and V.V. Shevchenko,
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii pr. 13, Moscow, Russia

Resume. The history of discovery of the giant basin in the southern region of the Moon named on the first images of the lunar far-side Mare Ingenii by IAU Task Group for Lunar Nomenclature (IAU General Assemblu, Berkley, USA,1961) is given.

South Pole.doc
South Pole.pdf


Physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil

V.Gromov,
VNIITRANSMASH, St. Petersburg, Russia

Resume. The purpose of this paper is to systematise and review the series of investigation concerning the physical and mechanical properties of the soil on the Moon. The results of these investigations permit a deeper understanding of the soil-forming processes of the uppermost layers on the Moon and on the other planets. They are also needed to clarify general trends and to provide basic data and engineering models in order to develop new techniques for planetary exploration. This seems to be of vital importance nowadays, because we are on the eve of a new stage in the development of missions to the Moon and the investigation of other planets.

phmp-ls.doc
phmp-ls.pdf


Lunar Base Development Issues, Technology Requirements, and Research Needs

Peter Eckart, Assistant Professor,
Division of Astronautics, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching, Germany

peter.doc
peter.pdf


Lunar figure and lunar libration as a clue to lunar interior

Alexander Gusev, Natasha Petrova, Naufal Rizvanov,
Kazan state university & Engelgrdt's astronomical observatory, Dpt. of Astron. & Gravit., Russia.

lun_net.doc
lun_net.pdf


Millennium challenges for living and working in space

Philip R. Harris, Ph.D., Management/Space Psychologist & Author,
HARRIS INTERNATIONAL, LTD., LaJolla, California 92037, U.S.A.

Millennium Challenges.doc
Millennium Challenges.pdf


Lipskiy-Rodionova' Lunar Antipodes as Precursors of a regular Wave Planetology

G.G.Kochemasov,
IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Resume. Summary: The pioneering works of Yu. N. Lipskiy and Zh. F. Rodionova on regularities in lunar tectonics (1972-1975) were later used in developing a general planetary wave tectonics conception. It shows a regular character of tectonic dichotomy, sectoring, granularity of celestial bodies, including stars. It connects widespread variability of stellar atmospheres with their wave induced structures.

lipskiy.doc
lipskiy.pdf


On the Future of Lunar Development

H.H.Koelle,
Aerospace Institute Technical University Berlin, Germany

Resume. Spaceflight can be considered as a natural, an essential and a logical step of the evolution of the human species. Exploring space, learning to live and work in space, and using its natural resources, will improve the quality of life on Earth and last-not-least enhance the survival chances of our civilization!

future.doc
future.pdf


Remote determination of lunar soil maturity

P.C.Pinet1, V.V.Shevchenko2, S.Chevrel1, Y.Daydou1, T.P.Skobeleva2, O.I.Kvaratskhelia3, C.Rosemberg1,

1UMR 5562 "Dynamique Terrestre et Planetaire"/CNRS/UPS, Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, 14 Av.E.Belin, Toulouse, 31400 France; 2Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, 119899, Russia, 3Abastumany Astrophysical Observatory, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Georgia

Resume. A detailed remote sensing survey of ten lunar regions of mare and highland types has been carried out by means of Clementine spectro-imaging data with the purpose of establishing the regional distribution of the maturity state and weight percent of iron content in the lunar soils. The data are used to obtain a scale of conformity between spectral index of maturity r, spectropolarization index, and maturity index Is/FeO.

sym-pap-a.doc
sym-pap-a.pdf


The Thermal Radiation of the Lunar Surface in the IR Range of the Spectrum (10-12 mkm)

S.G. Pugacheva,
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia

Resume. In the present paper, the implementation of the method for calibrating IR images is considered by example of calibrating three IR lunar-surface images transmitted by the first Russian geostationary meteorological satellite (GOMS). The Moon's image, scanned simultaneously with the Earth's image, is used for image calibrating as a steady-state source of visible and IR radiation. The photographs were obtained in IR (10.5-12.5 mkm) and visible (0.4-0.7 mkm) spectral ranges. The formulas of the analytical model of the Moon's thermal emission and drawings of the thermal indicatrix in the vector form are presented.

ir_luna_e.doc
ir_luna_e.pdf


Surnames of the astronomers in the names of the lunar objects

S.G.Pugacheva, V.V.Shevchenko,
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia

Resume. The results of the statistic selection of the lunar craters, which were called by names of the famous astronomers, are presented.

enome.doc
enome.pdf


History of development of selenodesy and dynamics of the Moon in Kazan

N.G.Rizvanov, L.I.Rakhimov,
Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory, Kazan, Russia

Resume. The brief history of development of heliometric and positional observations of the Moon in Kazan university and Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory from the end of the last century till now days is given. All aspects of research of a figure, rotation and gravitational field of the Moon are considered as well as other close to them questions.

kazan.doc
kazan.pdf


Maps and Globes of the Moon compiled with participation of the Department of Lunar and Planetary Investigation

J.F.Rodionova,
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute Moscow University, Moscow, Russia

Resume. A brief description of the mapping of the Moon carried out with the participation of the scientific workers of SAI and with the guidance of Y.N.Lipsky is taken.

maps.doc
maps.pdf


Swirl distribution on the lunar surface: locations antipodal to the young basins?

V.V.Shevchenko,
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia

Resume. The nature of diffuse albedo anomalies on the lunar surface that look like swirls is one of most interesting mystery in current lunar studies. There are two main classes of hypothesises of the swirl origin: formation of the swirls in the regions antipodal to large impact basins (1), and formation of the swirls in result of cometary impacts (2).

ant.doc
ant.pdf


2050: An Industrial Lunar Base Concept

A.G.Sizentsev1, V.V.Shevchenko2, V.F.Semenov3, G.M.Baidal1,
1Korolev Energia Rocket and Space Corparation, Korolev, Russia, 2Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia,
3Keldysh Research Center, Moscow, Russia

Resume. The discussed concept presents a phase in the industrial development of the base, when it becomes capable of building first experimental space power stations using solar energy to supply power to Earth. At that phase the permanent lunar base turns into a settlement with a population of up to 200.

baseen.doc
baseen.pdf


The part played by the department of lunar and planetary studies of the sternberg astronomical institute of the Moscow State University in the lunar exploration by means of rocket and space technology

B.I. Sotnikov, G.M.Baidal, G.A. Sizentsev,
S.P.Korolev, RSC Energia

lipsky.doc
lipsky.pdf


What Did They Do on the Moon? A Proposal for an International Atlas of Lunar Exploration

Philip J. Stooke,
Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2

Resume. The exploration of the Moon by spacecraft began in 1959 with the impact of Luna 2 and the first photography of the far side by Luna 3. On the fortieth anniversary of these pioneering flights it is appropriate to look back at the history of lunar exploration. What dreams were fulfilled, and what others never came to fruition? I propose the creation of an International Atlas of Lunar Exploration to tell this story in cartographic form. It would provide a detailed record of the subject, capable of serving as a foundation for future scholarship in the planetary sciences and in the history of space exploration.

sternber.doc
sternber.pdf


Comments and discussion

Comments on the regular wave planetology
G.G. Kochemasov, IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia


Comment on the International Jubilee Symposium "The Scientific Results of Space Research of the Moon"
Philip J. Stooke, Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario.